The second-year course in translation is meant to introduce the basic problems and parameters of translation from English to Polish, and from Polish to English. Students will work on specific problem areas, examining short passages and sentences that illustrate particularly difficult issues in translation, including questions of grammatical differences between the two languages, lexical equivalence and textual conventions. In-class discussion will cover topics such as foreignization and domestification, compensation, and handling of culture-specific elements. The final grade will be based on homeworks assigned throughout the semester, and on active participation in the classes. The course will be followed by a 15-hour workshop during the third year. Finally, the practical English exam at the end of the third year will include a translation section assessing your overall progress. During the exam you will be asked to translate a short passage from Polish to English. Sample exam tasks will be provided by course instructors.